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The music classical styles

The classical music history

 

 

   

CHARACTERISTICS

COMPOSERS

STRUCTURES

INSTRUMENTS

 

         

ANTIQUITY

Hebrew
Ancient Greece
Ancient Rome
China 
Africa

  Monophonic
Homophonic
Modal

 

-

Chants & Danses
Poetries
Greek modes
Chromatic scale
Pentatonic scale
Odes and tragedies
Roman Theatre Homophonic
Greek rhythms
Hymns
Flutes
Aulos
Syrinx
Bison rhombus
Bells
Drums
Lutes
Leatherback
Lyre
Latin tuba
Cornu
Organs
Sistres
Rattles
Tambourines...

 

MIDDLE AGES

(up to 15th century)

Christendom

 

  Religious & profane
Monodic
Polyphonic
Gregorian chant
Modal
Ars Antiqua
Ars nova

 

Trouvères
Troubadours
Guido d'Arezzo
Jean de Garlande
Francon de Cologne
Philippe de Vitry
Léonin
Pérotin
Jacques de Liège
Odon de Cluny
Isidore de Séville
Notker le Bègue
Adam de la halle
Guillaume de Machaut
Petrus de Cruce
Johannes Tinctoris
John Dunstable
Thomas Daquin
Bernard Ventadour
Blondel de Nesle
Chrétien de Troyes..

 

Plainchant
Songs
Organums
Conduits
Motets
Masses
Madrigals
Cannons
Liturgical dramas
Gymels
Faux bourdon
Descants
Tropes
Flûtes in C
Recorders
Pan flute
Ocarina
Lutes
Mandore
Psaltery
Giternn
Dulcimer
Zithers
Byzantine lyra
Rebab
Organ
Harp
Horn pipes
Hurdy gurdy
Fiddle
Sackbut...

 

RENAISSANCE

(15th - 16th century)

Europe

 

  Polyphonic
Chords - Harmony
Modal - tonal
Countrepoint
Guillaume Dufay
Johannes Ockeghem
Josquin des prés
Andrea Gabrieli
Palestrina
Roland de Lasus
Ottaviano Petrucci
Carlo Gesualdo
Merulo
Pierre Atteignant
John Bull
Claude le jeune
Thomas Morley
Clément Janequin
John Dowland
William Byrd
Gilles Binchois
Orlando di Lasso
Claudio Monteverdi..

 

Madrigals
Cannons
Masses
Ballata
Polyphonic song.
Motets
Canzone
Viole de Gambe
Viole di braccio
Harp
Lyre
Lute
Zither
Vihuela
Violin
Viele
Flutes
Bombard
Cromorne
Chalumeau
Trombone
Trumpet
Cornetto
Virginal Harpsichord
Organ
Tambourine...

BAROQUE

(17th century)

Europe

  Countrepoint - Harmony
Polyphonic
Continuo
Instrumental - vocal
Ornamental
Equal temperament
Tonal music
Major & minor modes
Claudio Monteverdi
Jean Baptiste Lully
Marc A. Charpentier
Henry Purcell
Arcangelo Corelli
Alessandro Scarlatti
François Couperin
Antonio Vivaldi
Jean Phil. Rameau
Domenico Scarlatti
J.S Bach
G.F.Haendel
Heinrich Schütz
Dietrich Buxtehude
Girolamo Frescobaldi
Tomaso Albinoni
Marin Marais
Giovani b. Pergolese

 

Operas
Oratorios
Cantatas
Dances suites
Sonatas
Concertos
Fugues
Preludes
Passions
Concertos grosso
Toccatas
Sinfonias
Choral
Tombs
Opera ballet
Lyric tragedy
Anthem

 

Recorders
Cornetto
Harpsichord
Lutes
Theorbo
Organs
Gamba
Violins

CLASSICAL

(18th century)

Europe

 

  Tonal music
Harmony - Countrepoint
Musical punctuations
Cadences
Perfect triads
Dominant seventh chords
Melodic predominance Accompanied melody
Rhythm in the background

 

Joseph Haydn
W.A. Mozart
L.V. Beethoven
C.W. Gluck
C.M.V.Weber
Luiggi Boccherini
F.J.Gossec
Operas
Symphonies
String quartets
Chamber music
Concertos soloists
Sonata structure
Scherzos
Minuets
Fantasies
Variations
Requiems
Masses
Lied
Arias
Rondeau

 

Piano forte
Violin
Alto violin
Cello
Double bass
Flutes
Oboe
Clarinet
Bassoon
English horn
Trumpet
Trombone
French horn
Timpani

ROMANTIC

(19th century)

Europe

 

  Tonal music
Remote modulations
Chromaticisms
Expressivity
Hector Berlioz
Felix Mendelssohn
Franz Schubert
Frédéric Chopin
Robert Schumann
Franz Liszt
Richard Wagner
Giuseppe Verdi
Johannes Brahms
P.I.Tchaïkovsky
Sibelius
Hummel
S.Rachmaninov
Camille Saint saëns
Leo Delibes
Charles Gounod
Georges Bizet
Giacomo Meyerbeer
Jacques Offenbach
Richard Strauss
Gioachino Rossini Giacomo Puccini
N.Rimsky Korsakov
Alexandre Borodine Modeste Moussorgsky
Bedrich Smetana
Antonin Dvorak
Cesar Franck
Gustav Mahler

 

Ouvertures
Symphonic poems
Ballets
Waltzes
Symphonies
Concertos
Sonatas
Rapsodies
Lied
Operas
Piano forte
French horn
Percussions
Symphonic Orchestra

MODERN

(20th century- part 1)

 

  Atonal music
Chromaticism
Serialism
Dodecaphonism
Impressionism
Modal music
Jazz
Indian music
African music
Asian music
Claude Debussy
Maurice Ravel
Gabriel Fauré
Arnold Schoenberg
Alban Berg
Anton Webern
Bela Bartok
Igor Stravinsky
Dimitri chostakovitch
Francis Poulenc
Georges Gershwin
Erik Satie
Serguei Prokofiev
Arthur Honneger
Darius Milhaud
Heitor Villa-Lobos
Samuel Barber
Ferruccio Busoni

 

Preludes
Melodies
Operas
Popular songs
Symphonic poems
Rapsodies
Modern piano
Symphonic Orchestra
Percussion orchestra

CONTEMPORARY

(20th century-part 2)

 

  Concrete music
Repetitive music
Electroacoustic music
Minimalist music
Electronic music
Predominance of space
Instrumental colors
Rhthm predominance
Acousmatic music
Computer music
Spectral music
Sound synthesis
Pre-recorded music
Pierre Boulez
Karlheinz Stockhausen
Gyorgy Ligeti
Luciano Berio
Alfred Schnittke
Pascal Dusapin
Steve Reich
Pierre Henry
Philip Glass
Pierre Schaeffer
Edgar Varèse
René Leibovitz
Luigi Nono
John Cage
Olivier Messiaen

 

Free structures
Sonatas
Concertos...
Percussions
Real Sounds
Traditional instruments
Sound effects
Ondes Martenot

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